Francesco Lamperti, a great Italian singer and pedagogue, was a proponent of ‘singing without forcing’. Lamperti’s vocal methods are widely used today. Lamperti’s students included Marietta Alboni, Maria Waldmann, Italo Campanini, William Shakespeare. Lamperti’s methods promote singing in a full, clear tone. Lamperti was against humming as, in his opinion, it fatigued the voice.